On a freshly deployed Windows 2012 R2 VPS server, possibly deployed by the WHMCS module Virtualizor_cloud, you cannot ping the server.
When you VNC to the server everything seems to work and you get PING DNS names outbound, e.g. ping www.cnn.com replies with the correct IP.
The issue is a freshly deployed Windows 2012 R2 ping is not enabled by default.
To enable it:
Enable-NetFirewallRule -Name FPS-ICMP4-ERQ-In
Get-NetFirewallRule -Name FPS-ICMP4-ERQ-In